A. Barra, G. Genovese, P. Sollich, D. Tantari, Phase diagram of restricted Boltzmann machines and generalized Hopfield networks with arbitrary priors , Physical Review E 97 (2), 022310, 2018

Restricted Boltzmann machines are described by the Gibbs measure of a bipartite spin glass, which in turn can be seen as a generalized Hopfield network. This equivalence allows us to characterize the state of these systems in terms of their retrieval capabilities, both at low and high load, of pure states. We study the paramagnetic-spin glass and the spin glass-retrieval phase transitions, as the pattern (i.e., weight) distribution and spin (i.e., unit) priors vary smoothly from Gaussian real variables to Boolean discrete variables. Our analysis shows that the presence of a retrieval phase is robust and not peculiar to the standard Hopfield model with Boolean patterns. The retrieval region becomes larger when the pattern entries and retrieval units get more peaked and, conversely, when the hidden units acquire a broader prior and therefore have a stronger response to high fields. Moreover, at low load retrieval always exists below some critical temperature, for every pattern distribution ranging from the Boolean to the Gaussian case.